学习生活课程：第 1 部分
WHEC Practice Bulletin and Clinical Management Guidelines for healthcare providers. Educational grant provided by Women's Health and Education Center (WHEC).
A Resource and Practical Guide for Teachers, Students and Administrators (Schools and Universities) for Planning Programs for Youth Development
The Women's Health and Education Center (WHEC) - A Community-based Advocacy Charity for people worldwide, and a United Nations ECOSOC-accredited non-governmental organization (NGO in Special Consultative Status, since 2008), highlights the importance of advocacy projects / programs, and importance of partnership. Mental health governs so much of our lives, and we must give it the attention and care that it requires in order to improve quality of life and social-emotional wellbeing. Just as physical health creates an image of strength and vitality, mental health should be associated with strength of the mind and vitality in human interaction when dealing with the challenges of everyday life. When schools are mental health-promoting, a major improvement is anticipated in the mental health status of children and the adults that they will become. In those circumstances, "mental health" should lose its negative connotation, and the real significance of mental well-being for human societies will be acknowledged.
The purpose of this document is to teach these skills launched for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3, 4, 5: Learning Life Lessons Series. These so-called Life-Lessons include decision-making, problem-solving, critical thinking, self-esteem, communication, self-assessment and coping strategies. People with such skills are more likely to adopt a healthy lifestyles. It is a three-part-series; Part I addresses first four chapters: 1) Stop procrastinating, get organized; 2) Improving emotional intelligence; 3) Overcoming shyness; and 4) Test-taking strategies.
As witnesses by the extent of mental health problems shared by children and adults alike, the "how to" of life is often a rather weak component of human competence. Education and life skills enables children to protect and promote their own health and wellbeing. Adolescents find themselves under strong peer pressure to engage in highly risky behavior, which can have serious implications on their lives. The spread of HIV/AIDS among adolescents is a more recent but growing phenomenon, while traditional problem of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) continues to increase. The impact of teenage pregnancy and subsequent childbirth on parents (both mother and father of the child), child's education / development and society, reaches far and wide and has negative consequences to all involved.
Too many teenagers become parents; either they cannot envision another positive future direction to their lives, or because they lack concrete educational or employment goals and opportunities that would convince them to delay parenthood. No single or simple approach has successfully reduced the teen pregnancy rate; much more study and efforts are required.
Teen Pregnancy: Understanding Social Impact
OBJECTIVES of Learning Life Lessons Series
This publication will give the teachers, TOOLS For CHILD DEVELOPMENT, to acquire the basic skills needed and to create Programs for Youth Development (PYD) in their institutions (Schools and Universities). The connection between education, health and earning-capacity is better understood. By supporting our teachers and students, we can lay the foundations for true social and economic development, everywhere. The purpose of this publication / series is to plan and develop:
- To help teachers improve the learning-skills of students,
- To help boys and girls to stay in school, continue to stay focused on the productive future and be global-citizen,
- To encourage girls, women and minorities in STEMM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine),
- To improve their learning-potential, and
- To help students learn the skills they need for leadership-roles and be a good-role-models for others.
- Stop procrastinating, get organized;
- Improving emotional intelligence;
- Overcoming shyness;
- Test-taking strategies;
- Reading effectively;
- Attitudes and Behaviors for success;
- Studying Tips;
- Helping the world become a better place;
- Becoming an effective changemaker.
CHAPTER I - STOP PROCRASTINATING, GET ORGANIZED
Procrastination is an issue with managing our emotions, not our time. It is while effectively distracting in short-term, can lead to guilt, which ultimately compounds the initial stress, not to mention the gathering clouds of guilt and frustration. "Still Procrastinating?: The No Regrets Guide to Getting It Done", has found that about 20% of adults are chronic procrastinators. That is higher than depression, higher than phobia, higher than panic attacks and alcoholism. And yet all of those are considered legitimate. We try to trivialize this tendency, but it is not a funny topic. Chronic procrastination does not discriminate based on gender, race or age; we are all susceptible. Contrary to popular belief, procrastinating has little to do with laziness. It is far more complicated, than simply being a matter of time management. Procrastination is different from delaying a task.
WHY DO WE PROCRASTINATE?
People often procrastinate because they're afraid of failing at the tasks that they need to complete. This fear of failure can promote procrastination in various ways, such as by causing people to avoid finishing a task, or by causing them to avoid getting started on a task in the first place. Procrastination can become a vicious cycle and it is an avoidance behavior. In short, it is a self-regulation problem. The realization of not having completed a vital task might get worse over time, and at some point, the barriers to completing the task might seem unsurmountable. If you are prone to procrastination and you recognize yourself in this description, the good news is there are practical, effective ways to start making change. People who are inclined to more procrastination tend to have lower life satisfaction, lower achievement and poorer health.
Definition of Procrastination; as suggested by Fuschia Sirois, Professor of Psychology, University of Sheffield, England - "The voluntary, unnecessary delay of an important task, despite knowing you will be worse off for doing so". We do not typically procrastinate on fun things. We procrastinate on task we find "difficult, unpleasant, aversive or just plain boring or stressful". It has been suggested, there are three types of procrastinators:
- Thrill-seekers - who crave the rush of putting off tasks until the last minute and believe they work best under pressure;
- Avoiders - who procrastinate to avoid being judged for how they perform on a project;
- Indecisive - who have difficulty making important or stressful decisions, often because they are ruminating over several choices.
WHAT ARE THE DANGERS OF PROCRASTINATION?
Whatever type of procrastinator you are, pushing tasks over and over again is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. It induces higher level of stress and a greater number of acute health problems than other people. The mental health implications include - general psychological distress and low-life satisfaction (particularly in regard to work and income), as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety, headaches, insomnia. It is also linked to heart diseases, such as hypertension. By overcoming your tendency to stall, you can improve your mental and physical health wellbeing.
We hope this chapter helps you with: How to overcome procrastinating?
ESSENTIAL KEY LEARNING TIPS
- Practice Self-compression. Tell yourself: "I am not the first person to procrastinate, and I will not be the last". Self-compression does not make people lazy; it actually increases people's motivation to improve themselves.
- Focus on doing your best. Instead of getting caught in the trap of worrying about what others think.
- Attach meaning to the task. Think about how completing it will be valuable to your personal growth or happiness. Doing so will help you feel more connected to the task and less likely to procrastinate.
- Start small. Split up the task into manageable parts. Once you have gotten started, and made even a small bit of progress on your task, there is a good chance you will keep going. GETTING STARTED IS EVERYTHING.
- Set deadlines for yourself for all those small steps. As people accrue small, easy accomplishments, they feel ready to do that big one.
- Situate yourself in a spot that is interruption-free. This is particularly important for demanding tasks.
- Reward yourself. Lots of teachers and parents use the Premack principle, which essentially stipulates that "something somebody wants to do becomes the reward for something they do not want to do".
- Enlist external help. Post about your goals on your social-network of friends, to hold you accountable for finishing the task.
- Time-management techniques can help engender feelings of control and so help prevent the emotional discomfort that causes procrastination.
- It is important to consider the possibility that your avoidance is more deeply rooted, and if so, whether you might benefit from more specialized help.
Solving the Procrastination Puzzle - A concise guide to strategies for change; by Timothy A. Pychyl
CHAPTER II - IMPROVING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Emotional Intelligence (EI) - defined in Oxford Dictionary, is the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically. EI is the key to both personal and professional success. Although the term first appeared in 1964, it gained popularity in the 1995 best-selling book Emotional Intelligence, written by science journalist Daniel Goleman. He defined EI as the array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance. It is as important as IQ (intelligent quotient) for success, including in academic, professional, social, and international aspects of one's life. EI is a skill that can be taught and cultivated, and outlines methods for incorporating emotional skill in school curriculum.
While the concept of EI is fairly new overall, it has proven to be critical to successful employees. It is becoming more common or employees to take into consideration EI just as much as hard or technical skills. EI as a soft skill - it has proven to be as - and sometimes more - important than technical skills in the workplace. One of many soft skills senior leaders seek out when they are hiring new employees is emotional intelligence. This makes not only employees happy but also improves organization's bottom line.
Components of IQ: high concentrations, intense forces, better comprehension, analytical skills and excellent memory.
Components of EQ or EI: Self Awareness, Self-management, Social Awareness and Social Skills.
WHY EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IS NEEDED?
Having emotionally intelligent employees has many benefits to an organizations as a whole. It can make better collaboration and teamwork in the workplace, along with stronger communication throughout the organization. By being and active listener and clearly communicating ideas, employees can work together effectively.
- An emotionally intelligent team makes a positive workplace culture. They feel good about the work they are doing when there is a mutual respect throughout the team.
- It helps with better communication and opportunities to form connections.
- It increases retention and motivate employees to continue to work to the best of their ability.
- It has significant financial benefits for an organization.
- Emotionally intelligent employees have ability to make changes and adjust to unexpected issues that may arise allows and organization to keep up despite challenges, by being flexible and adapt to unexpected changes.
- Emotionally intelligent employees may also be more likely to present new ideas that can benefit the organization.
- By having strong self-management skills, employees can be more resilient to these types of changes, and pivot to new ways of problem-solving.
COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Characteristics of EI can be broken down into five main components:
- Self-Awareness: it is ability to understand strengths and weaknesses, ability to understand your own feelings and having self-confidence. By being conscious of our emotions, we can better identify our needs and clearly communicate them. Self-awareness can also mean having a strong sense trusted intuitions. By being aware of your own emotions, you can better understand and respect other people's thoughts and feelings.
- Self-Management: it is emotionally self-control and emotional maturity, being goal-oriented and adaptability and resilience. It involves taking responsibility for you own emotions and finding healthy ways to cope with negative findings. Everyone can benefit from the ability to recognize and react to strong emotions in a productive way.
- Social Awareness: It is empathy, ability to form connections with others, being a good, active listener, and ability to explain yourself effectively. An individual with social awareness has a strong understanding of how to handle different social situations, and have effective interactions with other people. This allows people from different backgrounds to connect emotionally.
- Social Skills: It is being a good mentor, conflict management skills and ability to work collaboratively. Having good social skills means being able to effectively handle other people's emotions and having the ability create mutually beneficial relationships using good communication skills. Good leaders must have strong social skills to build rapport and can act as a role model for a team.
- Motivation: People with high degree of emotional intelligence are usually motivated. They are willing to defer immediate results for long-term success. They are highly productive, love a challenge, and are very effective in whatever they do.
HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE?
Emotional intelligence (EI) can be learned and developed. We suggest these strategies:
- Observe how you react to people? Do you rush to judgment before you know all of the facts? Do you stereotype? Look honestly at how you think and interact with other people. Try to put yourself in their place, and be more open and accepting of their perspectives and needs.
- Look at your work environment. Do you seek attention for your accomplishments? Humility can be a wonderful quality. Give others a chance to shine - do not worry too much about getting praise for yourself.
- Do a self-evaluation. Take a quiz. What are you weaknesses? Have the courage to look at yourself honestly - it can change your life.
- Examine how you react to stressful situations. Do you become upset every time there is delay or something does not happen the way you want? The ability to stay calm and in control in difficult situations is highly valued. Keep your emotions under control when things go wrong.
- Take responsibility for your actions. If you hurt someone's feelings, apologize directly. People are usually more willing to forgive and forget if you make an honest attempt to make things right.
- Examine how your actions will affect others. How will they feel if you do this? Would you want that experience? If you must take action, how can you help others deal with the effects?
HOW TO RAISE AN EMOTIONALLY INTELLIGENT CHILD?
As a parent, you have responsibility for encouraging your child to develop his/her intelligence. This means, of course, academic intelligence - but that is not the only type of intelligence that matters. Over the past decades, studies have found that emotional intelligence (EI) provides a variety of benefits that will serve your child well throughout his/her entire life.
EI is an asset and helps to achieve:
- High Emotional Intelligence (EQ or EI) is linked to high IQ;
- Better relationships;
- Childhood EI is linked to higher success during adulthood; and
- Improved mental health.
The benefits of EI make sense. A child who can calm themselves when they feel angry is likely to do well in difficult circumstances. And a child who can express their emotions in a healthy way is likely to maintain healthier relationships than a child who scream or says mean things when they are angry.
CHILD DEVELOPMENT GUIDE FOR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
All kids have the capacity to learn emotional intelligence skills. They just need adults to teach them how. We suggest:
- Label your child's Emotions. Emotional words such as "angry," "upset," "shy" and "painful" can all build a vocabulary to express feelings. Do not forget to share the words for positive emotions, too, such as "joy," "excited," "thrilled" and "hopeful."
- Show empathy. Validate their feelings and show empathy - even if you do not understand why the child is so upset. When your child sees that you understand how they are feeling on the inside, they will feel less compelled to show you how they are feeling through their behavior. So, rather than scream and cry to show you they are angry, they will feel better when you have made it clear that you already understand they are upset.
- Model appropriate ways to express feelings. The best way to teach your child how to express feelings is by modeling these skills yourself. Studies show that emotionally intelligent parents are more likely to have emotionally intelligent children. So, make it a habit to clearly focus on building your skills so you can be an effective role model for your child. You do not need a fancy science experiment to see that kids imitate their parents. You probably notice it every day.
- Teach healthy coping skills. Knowing how to calm themselves down, cheer themselves up, or face their fears can be complicated for little ones. Encouraging your child to get active or do something different will empower your child to take control of her emotions in a healthy manner.
- Teach your child anger-management skills. Anger rules should center around behaving respectfully toward others. Also teach problem-solving skills so children learn to recognize that they can solve problems without resorting to aggression. Talk about ways to resolve conflict peacefully. Offer consequences when necessary. It is normal for kids to struggle to manage their anger at times. But, with your guidance, your child's skills should improve. When kids struggle to get their anger under control, or their problems seem to be getting worse, it is important to seek professional help. A trained professional can rule out any underlying mental health problems and can offer assistance in creating a behavioral management.
- Develop problem-solving skills. After the feelings have been labeled and addressed, it is time to work through how to fix the problem itself. Help them identify at least five ways they might solve this problem. Solutions do not have to have good ideas. Initially, the goal is to just brainstorm ideas. Once they have identified at least five possible solutions, help them assess the pros and cons of each one. Then, encourage them to pick the best option. When your child makes mistakes, work through what could have been done differently and what your child can do to resolve any lingering issues. Try to act as a coach, rather than the actual problem-solver.
Emotional Intelligence is an ongoing goal. Make is an ongoing conversation. With your ongoing support and guidance, your child can develop the EI and mental strength they will need to success in life.
- Emotional Intelligence - Why It Can Matter More Than IQ, by Daniel Goleman.
- Quiz for Testing Emotional Intelligence:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA: Engaging parents and families to support social and emotional climate and learning - A Toolkit; available @ https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/sec/sec_toolkit.htm
CHAPTER III - OVERCOMING SHYNESS / SOCIAL ANXIETY
Almost everyone feels uncomfortable in social situations from time to time. In fact, feeling of social anxiety and shyness are perfectly normal. However, some people experience anxiety and shyness at a level that disturbs them, or that gets in the way of their day-to-day lives. If you worry excessively about what others think of you, or if you experience high levels of anxiety in situations such as parties, dating, public speaking, being observed, or meeting new people, this chapter is for you. Of course simply reading this chapter will not be enough to begin to make important changes in your life. To get the most out of it, you will need to practice the strategies over and over again and monitor your progress carefully.
Reducing your anxiety will involve making changes to the way you think and the way you behave in response to the specific situations that trigger your fear. Working through the strategies listed below is an ongoing process, lasting months, or even years. with a bit of patience and a lot of hard work, your efforts will pay off.
UNDERSTANDING SHYNESS / SOCIAL ANXIETY
Shyness and social anxiety are related, but not identical concepts. The term shyness refers to be withdrawn, anxious, or uncomfortable in situations involving interpersonal contact, such as conversations, dating, meeting new people, making small talk, talking on the phone, being assertive, dealing with conflict, or talking about oneself. Shyness is also associated with a tendency to be introverted; that is, more inwardly focused and more socially withdrawn.
The term social anxiety refers to the experience of nervousness or discomfort in situations that may involve being observed, scrutinized, or judged by others. Certainly, shy people experience social anxiety when they must socialize with others, but there are times when people who are not particularly shy also may experience social anxiety.
Shyness and social anxiety becomes a problem when it happens too frequently and too intensely, so much so that the person is distressed by the level of the anxiety, has difficulty functioning, and is unable to achieve important life goals. When social anxiety becomes a significant problem, mental health professionals often refer to the condition as social phobia or social anxiety disorder. This can have a severe impact on many different domains of living, including close relationships, education, career, social life, hobbies, and other areas of functioning.
|Shyness may disappear when one gets used to an unfamiliar people and place.||Social anxiety may either remain unchanged or get worsened even if the place and people become familiar.|
|Shy people are optimistic and are not as self-critical as those suffering from social anxiety.||People affected by social anxiety are usually pessimistic and tend to over-analyze simple situations.|
|Does not need medical intervention.||Needs medical intervention.|
WHAT CAUSES SHYNESS?
The key to triumphing over any setback becomes simple as soon as you make out the reason behind the setback. Shyness is no different. To overcome it, you have to understand, why do you suffer from it.
- Fear of trying out new things. Shyness has its roots in a shy person's infancy, at about the time when kid is exposed to new people, unknown relatives or friends. Some kids take a liking to new faces and in-facto show interest, while others just retract and build up shyness.
- A Fear of people. This happens because shy people often have a negative self-image.
- A fear of situations. Shy people worry about saying or doing the wrong thing. As a result, they end up acting clumsily.
- Occasions when such a fear strikes: Too much social attention. This often stems from the humiliating experiences in the past, in the childhood. Being bullied or teased by peers or siblings can make a person retreat into a shell. Such occurrences distorts the sense of 'self' that is being formed.
- Too little attention. At times, too little attention from others can lead to a feeling of being rejected. You feel left out, do not feel like you belong.
- The fear of being judged negatively. This perhaps ranks the highest among the fears felt by shy people.
- Low self-esteem. The inferior your assessment of yourself, the lesser will be your desire of freely mixing with others. And you will start to believe that everyone else you in the same light. Often the causes of behavior are silent and imperceptible, that occurs in the childhood, when the 'self' is taking place.
- When one or both parents are extremely aggressive. In such cases, a child starts considering everybody as potentially hostile. Thus, they become intimidated by certain situations.
- A critical family. When the family, instead of expressing joy in its accomplishments continuously expresses disapproval, the child becomes unsure of its capacities. Thus, it grows up expecting everyone to judge them negatively.
- Unaffectionate families. Lack of expression of tender feelings, love and care by close relatives when a child is growing up can contribute to shyness.
- Learned behavior. When parents are shy and find socializing unnerving, their actions end up inadvertently teaching the child to consider socializing as unpleasant.
- Effects of shyness. Isolation is not desired state for shy persons. They choose to be alone simply because the other option is extremely terrifying to them.
LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES OF SHYNESS
- Boredom. It is a state of mind that can keep you at bay by not trying out new things.
- Dysfunctionality. Shyness can cause difficulty making and maintaining close personal relationships.
- Loneliness leading to bitterness. In the long run shy person narrows down his world and end up leading a solitary life.
- Lack of assertiveness. Shy people fail to stick up for themselves, both in the workplace as well as in personal life. Hence, they are often exploited by peers.
- Problem in effective communication. Evading social situations make shy people grow up into adults lacking effective communication skills.
- Academic impediment. Shyness makes a child fail to ask for help from their teachers, even when they need to clear their doubts on the subject being taught.
HOW TO OVERCOME SHYNESS?
Sure, you can beat shyness. Only, you need to change your way of thinking, your philosophy of life. No achievement is easy. But of course, if you can strike at the root of a problem, you can fix it.
Step I - Know yourself
- Self-image: get a clearer perception of your personality and character.
- Attitude: you must have desire to change. And this implies a change in your mind-set.
- Viewpoint: change in perception is necessary. Shy people have a different perception of the world, and their opinions are based on their own perception. Such opinions, often distorted, govern their behavior.
Step 2 - Recognize your problem
Ahead of working on the solution, we should try to spot the problem and the foundation of it. Here is an exercise to help you identify both. Bring to mind a social situation that left you embarrassed in the recent past? Now that you have recognized the problem, let us go ahead towards the solutions.
Step 3 - Examine your fear-provoking ideas
- The circumstances. This could be any social situation, office where you work, a social gathering, a personal contact between two people, anything.
- The proof confirming the fear. The answer will tell you whether your fears are baseless or have a concrete foundation. Now replace the negative messages with more positive beliefs about yourself. These are called affirmations. Overcoming shyness is mostly effectively eliminating negative attitude. Negatively criticizing yourself makes situations that already induce anxiety in you snowball into a huge complications.
- The worst possible outcome of a situation. Jot down the worst-case scenarios that may come about through what you do or what you say. After you have pin-pointed your fear, go ahead and actually act out your worst-case scenario.
Step 4 - Handle fear-provoking ideas
By now, you must have recognized your problem and scrutinized it. Your next action should be to prepare for the circumstances that trigger your fears. Now go ahead, and boldly face it! Avoid avoidance, you will survive it.
- Accept rejection as a part of life. If you face a setback in a certain situation, try something new instead.
- Praise yourself for making the effort. Reward your efforts, not the outcome.
- Try meeting several new people and try them out as potential friends before you find a lasting bond. Finding a real connection with someone is rare, everyone just has to face some sour experiences in their quest.
- Mentally shift into a self-assured gear by acting like someone whose social grace you admire.
- Can you think of ANYONE who is absolutely perfect? Nobody is. So cut yourself some slack, don't be such a hard-task-master with yourself. And never judge a situation when you are feeling depressed.
Step 5 - Rate yourself
Finally, now that you have completed all the exercises, it is time to assess yourself. Be your own critic, do not hesitate to be a little hard on yourself. The will give a boost to your performance.
KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER
- Acquire and apply social skills. This will help increase your confidence.
- Choose one social skill to put into practice at a time. This will build a strong foundation to your skills.
- Plan ahead. Try it out, may be write down all you want to say on a piece of paper. Go over it loudly, stand in front of the mirror if you want.
- Befriend yourself. Stop being concerned with how others view you, tune out of the likelihood of negative judgment.
- Build up your assertiveness. It builds self-respect.
- Relax your mind. Learn relaxation exercises like deep-breathing, visualize a scene with a positive outlook, relax and start enjoying yourself, and you will see your uneasiness will melt away.
Shyness is a behavioral condition. It originates from sensitivity. Extreme cases of shyness can result in dysfunctional families and collapse of relationship. Changes may not occur overnight, but once you start trying, you will definitely see a progress. Always remember - Practice! Practice! Practice!
- Royal College of psychiatrists. Shyness and social phobia; available at https://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/mental-health/problems-disorders/shyness-and-social-phobia Last retrieved 11 February 2022
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA - Autism Case Training Videos: A Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics curriculum; available at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/autism/video/index.html
- Shrinking Violets: a field guide to shyness, by Joe Moran (2016)
CHAPTER IV - TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES
Before we talk about test-taking strategies, let us identify study skills areas where you should improve and focus. Learn how to optimize your studying and get more accomplished with effective time management. Studies show that varying your study methods will improve your retention and recall of information, and enhance your learning experience. The "learning pyramid" sometimes referred to as the "cone of learning." Developed by the National Training Laboratory, suggest that most students only remember 10% of what they read from textbooks, but retain nearly 90% of what they learn through teaching others (see below)
Lecture is one of the most ineffective methods for learning and retaining information. However, auditory learners tend to find lectures more stimulating and educational than students who have non-auditory learning styles. Lectures are most effective when students arrive to class prepared, actively participate in class discussions, and take good notes. If you are a visual learner, reading textbooks will likely be a more effective learning method for you than for students with non-visual learning styles. As media and computer technology continues to evolve, new forms of audio-visual instruction are leading to be more effective learning and retention of material. The effectiveness of audio-visual learning and study methods are enhanced when combined with other, more active forms of study.
Demonstration is the first of the seven study methods that involves active learning. It can be an effective study method, especially when information is ambiguous or confusing. Discussion, or "Group Discussion" is a form Cooperative Learning. Discussion groups are intended to stimulate student thinking, and increase participation and engagement. It can occur within a classroom setting or by forming a study group.
Practice (by) doing, is one of the most effective methods of learning and study. It also promotes deeper understanding and moving information from short-term to long-term memory. Practice by doing makes material more personal, and thus more meaningful to students. Practice by doing also makes material more personal, and thus more meaningful to students. Practice by doing also leads to more in-depth understanding of material, greater retention and better recall.
Teach others is the key to subject mastery. If you are able to teach a subject accurately and correctly to others, you will have a very good mastery of the concepts, and superior retention and recall. The most common form of teaching other is Peer Tutoring. The best place to teach others is in a study group.
HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE STUDENTS
The key to becoming an effective student is learning how to study smarter, not harder. This becomes more and more true as you advance in your education. The following are the top 10 study habits employed by highly successful students.
- Do NOT attempt to cram all your studying into one session. If you want to become a successful student then you need to learn to be consistent in your studies, and to have regular, yet shorter, study periods.
- Plan when you are going to study. Stick to your schedule.
- Study at the same time. Not only is it important that you plan when you are going to study, It is important you create a consistent, daily study routine.
- Each study time should have specific goal. You need to know exactly what you need to accomplish during each study session.
- Never procrastinate your planned study session. It is very easy and common, to put off your study session because of lack of interest in the subject. Successful students DO NOT procrastinate studying.
- Start with the most difficult subject first. As your most difficult assignment or subject will require the most effort and mental energy, you should start with it first.
- Always review your notes before starting an assignment. Always make sure you take good notes in class.
- Make sure you are NOT distracted while you are studying.
- Use study groups effectively. Make sure your study group is structured and members come prepared.
- Review your notes, schoolwork and other class materials over the weekend. This way they are well prepared to continue learning new concepts that build upon previous coursework and knowledge acquired the previous week.
KEY TEST PREPARATION TIPS
- DO NOT PROCRASTINATE. DO NOT CRAM. Give yourself enough time to study and sleep.
- Plan your study time. And stick with that.
- Watch for clues. Participate at test-review sessions and ask questions about unclear concepts. Never be ashamed to ask questions.
- Ask your teacher for direction and how best to prepare for exam.
- Arrive early on test day; at least 15 minutes early.
- Review early. Review with a group. Start a final review of all lecture notes, reading assignments, and other class materials that will help you prepare, a couple of days before the test.
- Prepare an outline of main topics and concepts. This will help you memorize key facts.
- Use visual aids, including charts, diagrams and graphs. Organizing information into diagrams and graphs helps to condense and simplify information and improves recall at test time.
- Stay healthy. Get plenty of rest and exercise regularly. Eat a nutritious meal.
- Get plenty of sleep the night before the test.
- Stay hydrated and use the bathroom. Be sure to use the bathroom before the test begins.
- Make a list of everything you need to bring with you for the test. For example: pencils, pens, erasers, calculators, list of equations, sweater, and water bottle.
- Have nutritious breakfast; do not go hungry.
REMEMBER TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES
Once you have a solid command of the subject matter and material that will be presented on your test, it is time to put in play some basic test taking strategies that have proven effective for thousands of students.
- BE PREPARED. There is no substitute for preparation.
- Always arrive early and take a moment to relax. This will increase your confidence and you will be able to narrow your focus for the upcoming test.
- Listen ATTENTIVELY to last minute instructions given by the instructor.
- Do a memory dump. As soon as you begin the test, write down information that you will likely need to know for the test and you fear you may forget.(i.e., formulas, equations, dates, lists etc.)
- Read the test directions very carefully and watch for details. It is common to have two correct answers on a multiple-choice question. Pay attention to details.
- Plan how you will use the allotted time. Complete the questions you know first then come back and tackle the problems you are not sure about after.
- Look for cues. Pay attention to grammatical matching between the question being asked and answers. If an answer seems right but does not match grammatically with the question, it probably is not the correct answer. Look for cues from other questions.
- Answer all the questions. Many professors will give partial credit for partially completed questions.
- Maintain a positive attitude. Concentrate on what you do know.
- Rely on your first impressions. It may be counterproductive to review answers and make changes - especially if you are struggling to get through the test.
- Plan to finish early and have time for review. Check to make sure you have completed entire test. It is common for questions to be listed on the opposite side of page.
- Consider every test a practice session - analyze your performance. Arrange to meet with teachers to discuss low test scores to determine what you can do to improve. This is highly recommended if you struggle with essay questions.
Accommodating Students with Dyslexia by Jessica Hamman
A Framework for Boosting High School Students' Math Confidence by Ranjani Iyer.
NOTE TO THE EDUCATORS | ADMINISTRATORS (Schools and Universities)
Helping students and supporting them, in their quest to make their lives better, helps to improve the communities too. And that is our mission. The healthy future of society depends on, the literacy and health of today's children, who are the guardians of the future. Every academic area can give examples about how the materials being taught can be used to make the world better place to live. Use this as a resource to increase engagement, learning and good mental health.
Our Projects | Programs will help schools and universities to plan and develop:
- Health-promoting schools;
- Programs for Youth Development (PYD);
- Mental Health Programs to Prevent Gender & Gun Violence;
- How to Handle Life's Challenges for Good Mental Health.
We welcome everyone. Please share with us your experiences, projects and programs.
Life is transformative. So feeling lost is normal and no matter how "put together" everyone around you seems, when you dig deeper, you will realize that most of them are just "figuring it out" as they go. Feeling lost can be a sign of growth. Your happiness and well being have everything to do how present, accepting, and content you are with all that is, right here, right now. There are no way to happiness - happiness is the way. Commitment is what gets you started, consistency is what gets you somewhere, and persistence is what keeps you going.
If you want to change your life around, here what you do:
- Commit to one thing.
- Stay consistent in it.
- Push through it.
And always remember: Practice! Practice! Practice!
Gratitude is express to Dr. Debra Rowe, Ph.D. President, U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development, Washington, D.C. (USA) for the expert opinions, inspiration and precious collaboration to plan and develop, Learning Life Lessons Series. Special thanks to Dr. Dawna K. Jenne, Ph.D. in Psychology, for the assistance with the research and helpful suggestions. Special thanks to Ms. Rebecca Phillips, Graduate Student Fellow with the U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development, for her assistance.
Dedicated to Women's and Children's Well-being and Health Care Worldwide