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Women's Health and Education Center (WHEC)

Gynecology

List of Articles

  • Ovulation Induction Strategies for Infertility Management
    Approximately 20% of infertile women have ovulatory disorders. When anovulation is the only infertility factor, the prognosis for pregnancy is very good because modern ovulation induction strategies are highly effective. When anovulation can be attributed to a specific treatable cause, ovulation induction can achieve pregnancy rates comparable to those observed in the normal population. The purpose of this document is to understand various modalities of ovulation induction. Anovulation is among the most common causes of infertility, and clinicians caring for infertile couples must have a thorough understanding of the many treatment options, their indications, and their risks. With these goals in mind, this article reviews the principles that guide both the traditional therapies and more recently described treatment strategies.

  • Understanding Assisted Reproductive Technology
    Over the past two decades, the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has increased dramatically worldwide and has made pregnancy possible for many infertile couples. ART encompasses all techniques involving direct manipulation of oocytes outside of the body. The purpose of this document is to provide an understanding, overview and indications for assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The results and complications of ART with an emphasis on newly developing technologies and areas of controversy are also discussed. Pregnancy rates after ART have shown nearly continuous improvement in the years since its conception. A number of factors affect the pregnancy rate, with the most important being a woman's age. Many studies are now finding that there is a slight increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes after ART. Although the vast majority of children born from these procedures are healthy, there is some concern about increased rates of prematurity, small for gestational age infants and a slight increase in the rates of birth defects following ART. Some of these complications can be linked to the problem of multiple gestations which are common following ART.

  • Contraception Counseling & Compliance
    Contraception is a women's health issue. It is about choices and human rights, not fear, guilt and shame. The negative images and concepts perceived regarding family planning and contraception in some religious and social arenas are the major factors for non-compliance and meager usage of birth control methods in many areas of the world. The purpose of this document is to help healthcare providers and women to identify their individual health care needs, and to make choices that will meet those needs. It also means that the patient has satisfied her personal preferences and arrived at the choice that best fits her life. A fundamental tenet in ethical, female-centered care is that women have a right to participate in their choice of contraceptive method. A woman who has actively chosen a method is more likely to use it consistently and correctly. Health benefits of hormonal contraception are also discussed. All contraception-methods offer health benefits in terms of reduced risk of unintended pregnancy, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, pregnancy complications, and pregnancy-related death. The help comes in focusing attention on the section of society with the most desperate needs.

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